(Research) Changes in Demographic Characteristics in Bundelkhand Region: Evidences from Census 2001 & 2011 by Sarda Prasad, JNU


 (Research) Changes in Demographic Characteristics in Bundelkhand Region: Evidences from Census 2001 and 2011 by Sarda Prasad, JNU


Content

  • Introduction
  • Justification of the study and objectives
  • Data and Methodology
  • Results and Discussion
  • Demographic Characteristics
  • Table 1: Percentage change in population in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011
  • Table2: Demographic characteristics in Bundelkhand region, Uttar Pradesh 2011
  • Table 3: Percentage change in Sex Ratio in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011
  • Table 4: Percentage change in Child Sex Ratio in Bundelkhand  Region during 2001 to 2011
  • Table 5: Percentage of adolescent, youth and adults in Bundelkhand region of UP and MP in 2011 by residence and sex
  • Table 6: Sex ratio (Female per 1000 males) in Bundelkhand region 2011
  • Table 7: Percentage distribution of disabled adolescent by sex and residence in Bundelkhand reg ion, MP and UP, 2011
  • Table 8: Prevalence of disability in adolescents in Bundelkhand region, MP and UP by sex and residence 2011
  • Table 9: Prevalence of Disability in Bundelkhand Region of UP and MP by sex and residence 2011
  • Table 10: Percentage change in Literacy in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011
  • Table 11: Percentage change in main worker status in Bundelkhand Region during 2001-11
  • Table 12: Percentage change in marginal worker in Bundelkhand Region during 2001-2011
  • Table 13: Percentage distribution of marginal worker (all ages) in Bundelkhand Region of MP and UP by residence and sex 2011
  • Table 14: Percentage distribution of marginal worker (15 to 59 yrs ages) in Bundelkhand Region of MP and UP by residence and sex 2011

Changes in Demographic Characteristics in Bundelkhand Region: Evidences from Census 2001 and 2011

Sarda Prasad and Arvind Shukla

Post Doctoral Fellow and Ph.D scholar

CSRD/SSS/ JNU, New Delhi-67

Email- sardaprasadk@gmail.com

Abstract

This study covers demographic changes influenced by socio-economic status in Bundelkhand region of MP and UP. This region identified as one of the poorest regions of India in terms of economy. Bundelkhand region comprises 13 districts from UP and MP. Thus this region has been selected for the study. This study is based on Census data of 2001 and 2011 with specific objectives such as –to find out the demographic changes during 2001 to 2011, and to study the demographic characteristics of the study area. Findings shows that urbanization in Bundelkhand region has increased more than state average (MP and UP) during 2001 to 2011. Sex ratio has increased but child sex ratio has decreased less than state average. Literacy rate of this region is 58.8 per cent in 2011. Female literacy rate has been increase by 59 per cent whereas male literacy has increased by 31 per cent in Bundelkhand region. Work participation rate of the region is 39.5 per cent in 2011. Main worker has positively changed by 18 per cent but main agricultural labour has changed negatively by 8 percent in both sexes and residence. Female marginal worker has decreased by 5 per cent during 2001 to 2011 whereas female marginal agricultural labour has decreased by 42 per cent and male marginal agricultural labour has increased by 16 per cent. There were 76 per cent of the population dependent in the bundelkhand region. Population density of the region is 329 persons per square Km. Natural increase rate of population is 2.8 per cent with annual growth rate of 1.6 per cent. Bundelkhand region would take about 43 years to double its population. Birth rate (CBR), death rate (CDR), and infant mortality rate (IMR) are 30.5, 2.6 and 4 per 1000 respectively. This region shows higher birth rate than state (UP) average (18.1) due to non-availability of birth data of some districts of the region. Adolescents (10-19 yrs), youth (15-24 yrs) and adult (15-35yrs) population of this region are 22.7, 19.2 and 36.2 per cent respectively. Adolescent sex ratio is 848 whereas 684 sex ratio among disabled of this region in 2011. Disability in seeing, in hearing and in movement is higher among adolescents and total population of this region related to both MP and UP. Household duty is more common among marginal worker and non-worker in different age groups, Adolescents and sex in rural and urban residents.

We conclude that demographic change in bundelkhand region is more intense than states average (MP and UP) from which the region is identified.

Keywords: Work participation, migration, literacy, disability, sex ratio, adolescent and youth

Introduction

Demographic changes are the quantitative changes of the demographic (population) characteristics in a particular region. Demographic characteristics include age, sex, residence, place of origin and destination, working status, literacy, vital events, population size, social group, etc. Census is the best and reliable source of data for demographic study of the area. Bundelkhand region is one of the poorest regions not only in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Madhya Pradesh (MP) but all of India. This region is known because of Bundela Raja and it also mentioned in Hindu literatures Ramayana and Mahabharat. Bundelkhand (BKD) region comprises 13 districts. Seven districts are in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) namely Jhansi, Banda, Jalaun, Chitrakoot, Mahoba, Hamirpur and Lalitpur. While six districts namely, Datia, Tikamgarh, Chhatarpur, Panna, Sagar and Damoh are in Madhya Pradesh (MP).  There are four geographic regions of UP such as Western, Central, Eastern and Bundelkhand(Southern). Literatures show vast Inter-regional variations in socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and political. The Eastern and Bundelkhand regions are comparatively more backward as compared to Western and Central regions.Bundelkhandregion has very less population, less area per square kilometer, less density of population and lowest literacy rate. The total literacy rate and female literacy rates both are lowest in comparison with all the regions (Narula, YNS).

According to census 2011, 77.9 per cent of the population of Bundelkhand region living in rural areas which is slightly lower from 2001 77.6 per cent. Male population is higher than female. This region is marked by low population density. Related to low population density is low level of urbanisation. There is a clear variation in intra-regional distribution of population. There is higher population density in the Bundelkhand Plain areas (Jalaun, Hamirpur, Banda), and Bundelkhand Intermediate region areas (Jhansi, Tikamgarh), and lower population density in Bundelkhand Upland (Panna) and the southern Damoh and Sagar plateaus (Bundelkhand Information, 2014).

Justification of the study and objectives

Hardly, we find the research articles on bundelkhand region. Development of the region is constant for long time or very slow in motion. Statistical figures of socio-economic factors are not changing as fast as other regions of UP and MP. Most of the research findings are either similar or slightly change of previous study. Thus we have selected this for the study with two specific objectives- –to find out the demographic changes during 2001 to 2011, and to study the demographic characteristics of the study area.

Data and Methodology

This study is based on secondary data of two censuses 2001 and 2011. We have used Primary Census Abstract (PCA), Economic table (B1, B11 and B13), Age data (C13, 14), Disabled data (C20) and migration table (D14, 2001). We have also used civil registration system (CRS) data for required information. There is no specific data on Bundelkhand region. For the purpose of study we have compiled 13 districts from identified states (7 districts of UP and 6 districts of MP) as mentioned above.

We have used all possible demographic analysis such as change in population during 2001 to 2011, sex ratio, work participation rate, literacy, population density, population growth rate, natural increase, birth and death rate, infant mortality. Exponential growth rate has been calculated. We have used formula to analyse demographic characteristics as follows-

Percentage changes= New Value – Old value / Old value * 100

Where

New value = Figure of Census 2011

 Old value = Figure of Census 2001

Disability rate (%) =Number of disabled population/Total number of population∗100

Work Participation rate (%) =Total no. of worker/Total no. of population*100

Literacy rate (%) = Total no. of literate/ Total no. of Population *100

Sex Ratio (per 1000) = Total no. female/Total no. of Male *1000

Dependency ratio (%) =Population (0-14+ >60 years)/ Population (15-59Yrs)*100

Urbanisation rate (%) = Urban population/Total population *100

Migration rate (%) = Total migrant/Total population *100

CBR (or CDR) = Number of birth (or death) /Total Population (Mid-year) *1000

Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000) =Number of death <1years / Total births in a year*1000

Results and Discussion

Findings focused on bundelkhand region, MP and UP. Results and discussion have been divided into four sections- Demographic characteristics, adolescents and youth, literacy rate and work status by sex and residence. 

Demographic Characteristics

We have discussed earlier that Bundelkhand region is the part of MP and UP. Table 1 indicates the changes of the population during 2001 to 2011. Population has increased by 18.3 per cent of the total population which is lower than both states. Percentage change of female (19.2) population is higher than male (17.5) population. Rural and urban bifurcation also shows higher change in female population. Chitrakoot district UP show highest increased of the population by 29.4 per cent during 10 years gap followed by Datia district (MP) 25.2 per cent. Hamirpur district of UP notice lowest population growth i.e., 5.8 per cent but it also found that urban area of this district shows that 20.7 per cent of the population has increased.

Table 1: Percentage change in population in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011

District/Area

T_P

T_M

T_F

P_06

F_06

M_06

P_SC

M_SC

F_SC

P_ST

Total

Banda

17.0

16.9

17.3

-2.8

-3.6

-2.1

21.1

20.7

21.7

201.9

Chitrakoot

29.4

29.0

30.0

8.2

6.9

9.4

32.1

32.4

31.8

36500.0

Hamirpur

5.8

5.3

6.4

-18.2

-19.0

-17.5

1.4

0.7

2.3

185.5

Jalaun

16.2

15.2

17.4

-4.3

-4.7

-3.8

19.0

17.6

20.8

494.3

Jhansi

14.5

13.4

15.9

-7.2

-8.3

-6.2

14.9

13.8

16.1

262.0

Lalitpur

24.9

23.4

26.7

5.9

5.0

6.7

-1.3

-1.9

-0.7

3580400.0

Mahoba

23.6

22.8

24.6

-4.9

-5.4

-4.4

21.0

20.2

21.9

895.4

Tikamgarh

20.1

19.2

21.2

-0.8

0.4

-2.2

23.8

22.4

25.3

30.6

Chhatarpur

19.5

18.7

20.5

-2.3

-1.4

-3.2

18.2

17.2

19.3

42.6

Panna

18.7

18.4

19.0

-4.3

-3.4

-5.3

21.4

21.0

21.8

29.7

Sagar

17.6

17.1

18.3

-3.5

-3.2

-3.8

20.8

19.8

21.9

13.0

Damoh

16.6

16.1

17.3

-2.0

-1.7

-2.4

16.6

15.7

17.6

22.1

Datia

25.2

24.2

26.4

1.5

2.6

0.4

27.8

26.3

29.5

51.0

MP

20.3

19.6

21.1

0.3

1.0

-0.6

23.9

23.0

24.9

25.2

BKD_MP

19.1

18.4

19.8

-2.3

-1.5

-3.1

21.0

19.9

22.1

23.8

BKD_UP_MP

18.3

17.5

19.2

-3.0

-3.8

-2.3

17.8

16.9

18.9

37.0

BKD_UP

17.6

16.7

18.6

-3.6

-4.4

-2.9

15.4

14.6

16.3

5104.6

UP

20.2

19.3

21.2

-2.6

-3.4

-2.0

17.7

17.2

18.2

950.6

 

Rural

Banda

17.8

17.9

17.7

-1.5

-2.4

-0.7

22.4

22.1

22.8

103.3

Chitrakoot

29.8

29.5

30.3

9.2

8.1

10.1

31.5

31.8

31.1

NA

Hamirpur

2.8

2.4

3.4

-20.3

-21.0

-19.6

-1.1

-1.7

-0.3

800.0

Jalaun

14.1

13.1

15.3

-5.6

-6.1

-5.2

17.5

16.0

19.4

5345.5

Jhansi

12.8

11.5

14.3

-9.6

-11.0

-8.3

13.4

12.1

14.9

190.8

Lalitpur

25.2

23.6

27.0

6.7

5.6

7.7

-3.6

-4.2

-3.0

NA

Mahoba

24.8

23.8

25.8

-4.0

-4.7

-3.4

24.4

23.5

25.4

575.7

Tikamgarh

20.7

19.7

21.8

0.3

1.4

-0.9

24.2

22.9

25.8

31.3

Chhatarpur

18.5

17.8

19.4

-2.6

-1.8

-3.6

16.9

16.0

17.9

42.0

Panna

19.1

18.9

19.3

-3.6

-2.4

-5.0

20.6

20.1

21.0

29.1

Sagar

16.7

16.1

17.3

-4.9

-4.4

-5.4

18.5

17.5

19.7

11.8

Damoh

15.2

14.7

15.9

-3.4

-3.2

-3.7

14.2

13.4

15.1

21.7

Datia

23.2

22.4

24.2

-0.2

1.0

-1.5

25.0

23.8

26.5

31.4

MP

18.4

17.9

19.0

-1.4

-0.5

-2.3

19.6

18.8

20.4

24.7

BKD_MP

18.4

17.8

19.1

-2.8

-1.9

-3.6

19.6

18.6

20.7

22.8

BKD_UP_MP

17.8

17.0

18.6

-3.2

-4.0

-2.4

16.8

15.9

17.8

36.0

BKD_UP

17.2

16.4

18.1

-3.5

-4.4

-2.8

14.7

13.9

15.6

9513.2

UP

18.0

17.1

18.9

-4.6

-5.4

-3.9

15.8

15.3

16.3

976.0

 

Urban

Banda

13.0

11.5

14.8

-11.3

-11.5

-11.2

11.6

10.0

13.5

325.0

Chitrakoot

25.8

24.6

27.2

-1.8

-5.6

1.8

40.7

40.4

41.1

400.0

Hamirpur

20.7

20.0

21.6

-6.4

-7.5

-5.4

14.8

13.6

16.3

166.5

Jalaun

23.0

22.0

24.2

0.9

0.4

1.3

25.5

24.1

27.0

80.6

Jhansi

17.1

16.1

18.2

-2.9

-3.5

-2.4

17.8

17.2

18.5

384.5

Lalitpur

23.6

22.5

24.8

-0.1

0.8

-0.9

23.6

22.7

24.6

91650.0

Mahoba

19.7

19.2

20.2

-8.4

-8.4

-8.4

4.2

3.7

4.7

1317.9

Tikamgarh

17.5

16.8

18.2

-6.9

-5.0

-8.9

21.0

19.8

22.5

24.4

Chhatarpur

23.0

21.8

24.4

-0.6

0.2

-1.5

24.6

23.1

26.3

53.7

Panna

15.9

15.1

16.7

-10.5

-12.2

-8.5

28.4

28.2

28.8

44.2

Sagar

20.0

19.3

20.7

0.9

0.8

1.0

26.2

25.3

27.2

33.4

Damoh

22.6

22.1

23.1

5.3

6.1

4.5

27.1

25.8

28.6

34.8

Datia

32.3

30.8

34.1

8.4

8.8

7.9

42.2

39.6

45.3

146.4

MP

25.7

24.4

27.2

6.2

6.5

5.9

37.2

35.9

38.6

32.1

BKD_MP

21.4

20.6

22.3

-0.2

0.2

-0.7

26.7

25.5

28.1

42.5

BKD_UP_MP

20.1

19.2

21.2

-2.2

-2.7

-1.8

22.1

21.1

23.4

55.4

BKD_UP

19.1

18.0

20.3

-4.0

-4.5

-3.5

18.4

17.5

19.5

564.6

UP

28.8

27.6

30.2

7.2

6.9

7.4

30.9

30.0

32.1

750.4

T-Total, P-Population, M-Male, F- Female, 06-Year Child, BKD -Bundelkhand Region, UP-Uttar Pradesh,

MP-Madhya Pradesh, SC-Schedule Caste, ST-Schedule Tribe.
Source: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Child population (0-6 years) of both sexes has decreased by three per cent in which 3.2 and 2.2 per cent has decreased in rural and urban respectively. Female population has decreased by four percent in rural areas whereas in urban areas it is 2.7 per cent. Table 1 clearly indicates highest decline of child population in Hamirpur district by 18.2 per cent. This percentage (20.3) is higher in rural areas whereas urban areas show 6.4 per cent decline of children. Female children have decline more than male children in both residences.

Schedule caste (SC) population has increased by 17.8 in bundelkhand region in which 16.9 per cent in rural areas and 22.1 percent in urban has increased. It indicates that SC population migrated to urban from rural areas. There are 37 per cent of tribes population has increased in the region which is higher than states average. Bundelkhand part of UP shows that Chitrakoot (36500%) and Lalitpur (3580400%) district shows unexpected population increment during 2001 to 2011. The reason of this is not clear but both districts are adjoining to the MP and we can expect only migration is the main cause of the increment of tribe population in both districts. Another reason is that in 2001 the tribes population in these districts were less in numbers. Table 1 also shows that tribes are not in rural areas in 2001.

Urbanization in Bundelkhand region of UP has slightly changed in 2011 from 2001. Fig.1 depicts 22.4 and 22.7 per cent urban population 2001 and 2011 respectively.

Fig.1:  Percentage of Urban population in Bundelkhand region, UP, in 2001 and 2011

Table2: Demographic characteristics in Bundelkhand region, Uttar Pradesh 2011

Particular

Dependency

Ratio(%)

WPR

(%)

Literacy

(%)

Sex

Ratio

Density/

Sq.KM

GR/PA

(01-11)

Doubling

Time

NIR

(%)

CBR

CDR

IMR

MR (%)

U.P.

77.8

32.9

57.3

912

829

1.8

38

1.4

18.1

3.7

6.3

2.0

BKD

76.0

39.5

58.8

877

329

1.6

43

2.8

30.5

2.6

4.0

2.7

Banda

85.2

39.0

55.7

863

408

1.6

44

4.9

51.9

3.1

0.0

28

Chitrakoot

91.1

39.7

53.6

879

308

2.6

27

2.6

27.7

1.2

14.2

4

Hamirpur

75.1

40.2

59.2

861

275

0.6

124

2.3

25.8

2.5

7.8

7

Jalaun

69.3

36.7

63.6

865

370

1.5

47

1.1

14.8

3.5

17.1

15

Jhansi

63.0

40.8

65.3

890

398

1.4

52

1.5

17.6

3.0

0.0

24

Lalitpur

82.9

41.2

52.5

906

242

2.2

31

3.0

33.0

3.0

3.4

11

Mahoba

79.5

39.9

55.7

878

279

2.1

33

5.2

51.8

0.2

0.0

11

Note-WPR-Work participation rate, GR-Growth rate per annum, NIR-Natural Increase, CBR-Crude Birth rate, CDR-Crude death rate, IMR- Infant Mortality rate, MR-Migration rate

Development of the any nation is not due to its natural environment and physical facilities but due to its human resources. Dependency ratio shows working and non-working age population of the country. Table 2 reveals that 76 per cent of dependent population are in this region which is lower than state average (UP) in 2011. Highest dependency ratio was recorded in Chitrakoot district (91.1 %) followed by Banda (85.2%) and Lalitpur district (82.9%).  Work participation rate and literacy rate of bundelkhand region of UP are also higher than state average but sex ratio and population density is lower than state average. Annual growth of the population is 1.6 during 2001 to 2011 that indicates that about 43 years would be required for doubling bundelkhand population.  High annual population growth rate was recorded in Chitrakoot district (2.6) whereas low growth was found in the Hamirpur (0.6). Resultant of this natural increase has been recorded by 2.8 per cent in the region. Crude birth rate (CBR), Crude Death rate (CDR) and Infant death rate (IMR) were 30.5, 2.6 and 4 per 1000 in bundelkhand region in 2001.

Sex ratio is the indicator of sex composition of the area whereas child sex ratio (CSR) directly linked with fertility in a decade. Visaria (1971) reported sex imbalances firstly. Fig.2 depicts that child sex ratio decline across the region. Jhansi is one of the highly literate and developed districts of Bundelkhand region that reported lowest child sex ratio in declining trends. In 2001, CSR in Jhansi was 886 which are declined by 20 point in 2011. Kumar and Sathyanarayana (2012) also estimated, 859 CSR of Jhansi. Table 4 clearly indicates that all the districts of bundelkhand regions witness of declining child sex ratio during 10 years in both residences. Table 3 shows positive change in sex ratio except in bundelkhand part of rural UP.Son preference is one of the reasons of declining child sex ratio (Agnihotri, 2000). Indian census (2011) shows that the overall sex ratio has slightly improved from 927 in 1991, 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011 census. Fig.3, 4 and 5 shows the age sex composition in bundelkhand region.

Table 3: Percentage change in Sex Ratio in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011

District/ Area

Total

Rural

Urban

SR_11

SR_01

CH_SR

SR_11

SR_01

CH_SR

SR_11

SR_01

CH_SR

Banda

863

860

0.4

860

861

-0.1

881

855

3.0

Chitrakoot

879

873

0.8

878

873

0.6

892

873

2.1

Hamirpur

861

851

1.1

858

850

1.0

871

859

1.4

Jalaun

865

849

1.9

859

843

1.9

883

867

1.8

Jhansi

890

871

2.2

893

870

2.5

887

871

1.8

Lalitpur

906

882

2.6

904

880

2.8

916

899

1.9

Mahoba

878

866

1.4

877

862

1.6

885

878

0.8

Tikamgarh

901

886

1.7

899

883

1.8

909

899

1.2

Chhatarpur

883

869

1.5

880

868

1.4

892

874

2.2

Panna

905

901

0.5

906

903

0.3

899

887

1.4

Sagar

893

884

1.0

888

880

1.0

905

894

1.2

Damoh

910

901

1.0

911

901

1.1

907

900

0.8

Datia

873

857

1.8

867

854

1.5

892

870

2.5

MP

931

919

1.3

936

927

1.0

918

898

2.2

BKD_MP

894

883

1.2

892

882

1.2

901

889

1.4

BKD_UP_MP

885

873

1.4

883

871

1.3

893

878

1.7

BKD_UP

877

863

1.0

874

862

-0.3

886

870

1.9

UP

912

898

1.6

918

904

1.5

894

876

2.1

Note-SR-Sex Ratio, CH-SR-% change in sex ratio during 2001 to 2011

Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011     

Table 4: Percentage change in Child Sex Ratio in Bundelkhand  Region during 2001 to 2011

District/ Area

Total

Rural

Urban

CSR11

CSR01

ChCSR

CSR11

CSR01

ChCSR

CSR11

CSR01

ChCSR

Banda

902

917

-1.6

902

919

-1.8

899

902

-0.3

Chitrakoot

907

928

-2.3

910

927

-1.8

872

940

-7.3

Hamirpur

886

903

-1.9

891

907

-1.7

862

882

-2.3

Jalaun

881

889

-1.0

882

891

-1.0

877

885

-0.9

Jhansi

866

886

-2.2

867

892

-2.9

864

874

-1.1

Lalitpur

916

931

-1.6

916

935

-2.0

918

902

1.7

Mahoba

892

901

-1.0

892

904

-1.3

892

892

0.1

Tikamgarh

892

916

-2.6

892

913

-2.3

889

927

-4.1

Chhatarpur

900

917

-1.8

903

920

-1.9

886

901

-1.7

Panna

914

932

-1.9

914

938

-2.6

915

877

4.3

Sagar

925

931

-0.7

923

932

-1.0

931

929

0.2

Damoh

928

935

-0.7

932

937

-0.5

909

923

-1.4

Datia

856

874

-2.1

854

876

-2.5

862

869

-0.9

MP

918

932

-1.6

923

939

-1.8

901

907

-0.6

BKD_MP

907

922

-1.6

908

923

-1.7

905

913

-0.9

BKD_UP_MP

899

914

-1.6

901

917

-1.7

891

900

-0.9

BKD_UP

892

906

-1.6

895

911

-1.7

878

888

-1.1

UP

902

916

-1.4

906

921

-1.6

885

890

-0.5

Note-CSR-Child Sex Ratio, Ch-%Changes          Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Fig 5: Age Sex Pyramid - Bundelkhand Region, UP+MP 2011(Urban)

Adolescent and Youth in Bundelkhand region

Indian Census 2011 has categorised adolescents and youth based on age group. The United Nations also considers as Adolescent 10-19 Years, Youth 15-24 Years. Indian Society of Adult Education has defined 15-35 years population as adults. These groups of population are considered as future of country, working age, etc. Table 5 shows that 22.7 per cent of adolescent and 19.2 per cent of the youth in bundelkhand whereas adult population are 36.2 per cent. Female adolescent, youth and adults are lower than male in both residents. Adolescent sex ratio presents in Table 6 which is lower (848) to state average (902, 882).

Table 5: Percentage of adolescent, youth and adults in Bundelkhand region of UP and MP in 2011 by residence and sex

Population

Total

Rural

Urban

T_P

T_M

T_F

R_P

R_M

R_F

U_P

U_M

U_F

Adolescent (10-19 Yr)_BU

22.8

23.2

22.2

22.9

23.4

22.3

22.2

22.5

21.8

Adolescent (10-19 Yr)_BM

22.6

23.0

22.1

22.8

23.2

22.3

21.7

22.0

21.4

Adolescent (10-19 Yr)_BUM

22.7

23.1

22.1

22.9

23.3

22.3

22.0

22.3

21.6

Youth (15 - 24 Yr)_BU

19.1

19.9

18.1

18.4

19.4

17.3

21.3

21.8

20.7

Youth (15 - 24 Yr)_BM

19.3

20.2

18.3

18.8

19.9

17.7

20.8

21.3

20.2

Youth (15 - 24 Yr)_BUM

19.2

20.0

18.2

18.6

19.6

17.5

21.0

21.6

20.5

Adult(15-35 Yr)_BU

36.0

36.8

35.0

34.8

35.8

33.7

39.8

40.2

39.4

Adult(15-35 Yr)_BM

36.4

37.4

35.2

35.5

36.7

34.2

39.3

39.9

38.7

Adult(15-35 Yr)_BUM

36.2

37.1

35.1

35.2

36.2

34.0

39.6

40.1

39.1

Note- T-Total, P-Population, M-Male, F-Female, R-Rural, U-Urban, BU-Bundelkhand UP,BM-Bundelkhand MP,

BUM-Bundelkhand region of UP&MP
Source: Registrar General, India (2011)

Table 6: Sex ratio (Female per 1000 males) in Bundelkhand region 2011

Region/State

Adolescent Sex Ratio

Total

Rural

Urban

BKD_MP

860

856

876

BKD_UP

837

832

857

BKD_UP_MP

848

843

866

MADHYA PRADESH

902

910

880

UTTAR PRADESH

882

885

873

Source: Registrar General, India (2011)

Disabled population in Bundelkhand Region

Indian Census has been collecting information on disability by age, sex, residence, caste and work status. In this study we use information on various disabilities among the population and adolescent by sex, residence, social group and working status. The types of disabilities reported by census are- disabilities in seeing, in hearing, in speech, in movement, mental retardation, mental illness. In 2011 census, disabilities other than mentioned above are included in any other type. Likewise persons with more than one disability are considered as having multiple disabilities and mental disability is clubbed into mental illness and mental retardation.Figures in Table 7 shows disabled adolescents in bundelkhand region, MP and UP are 3.08, 5.65, and 6.61 per cent respectively of the total adolescent. It is interesting to note that sex ratio among adolescent are lower than child sex ratio. It indicates that disabled girls either died due to lack of treatment or ignore for treatment. Among disabled adolescents male are more than female in both residences. MP part of bundelkhand has lowest disabled adolescent whereas overall MP disabled population percentage high in both rural and urban 6.01 and 8.77 respectively. Table 8 reveals different story of disability. Disability in movement is higher (18.54%) followed by in hearing and in seeing 17.75 and 17.23 per cent respectively (Fig.10). Hearing problems are more common in urban areas. There are 2.39 per cent of adolescent suffered from mental illness in bundelkhand region in 2011. Table 9 indicates disability among general population in Bundelkhand, MP and UP by sex and residence.

Table 7: Percentage distribution of disabled adolescent by sex and residence in Bundelkhand region, MP and UP, 2011

Region/

State

 

Adolescent (10 - 19 years)

Population

Disabled (%)

Sex Ratio

Person

Males

Female

Total

Bundelkhand_MP

48910261

0.07

59.31

40.69

686

Bundelkhand_UP

2202863

1.25

59.50

40.50

681

Bundelkhand

1952200

3.08

59.40

40.60

684

Madhya Pradesh

4155063

6.61

57.44

42.56

741

Uttar Pradesh

16011290

5.65

56.62

43.38

766

 

Rural

Bundelkhand_MP

38553024

0.07

59.65

40.35

676

Bundelkhand_UP

1715731

1.21

59.99

40.01

667

Bundelkhand

1535719

3.00

59.80

40.20

672

Madhya Pradesh

3251450

6.01

57.66

42.34

734

Uttar Pradesh

11840755

5.90

56.78

43.22

761

 

Urban

Bundelkhand_MP

10357237

0.07

58.14

41.86

720

Bundelkhand_UP

487132

1.38

57.98

42.02

725

Bundelkhand

416481

3.36

58.06

41.94

722

Madhya Pradesh

903613

8.77

56.91

43.09

757

Uttar Pradesh

4170535

4.94

56.06

43.94

784

Table 8: Prevalence of disability in adolescents in Bundelkhand region, MP and UP by sex and residence 2011

Types of

 Disability

Adolescents (10-19 years) disability by sex and residence

Female

Male

Person

B_M

B_U

BKD

MP

UP

B_M

B_U

BKD

MP

UP

B_M

B_U

BKD

MP

UP

Total

In seeing

17.23

15.09

16.25

16.66

16.86

15.07

13.29

14.25

15.38

14.96

15.95

14.02

15.06

15.93

15.79

In Hearing

17.75

19.54

18.57

18.52

26.62

14.04

16.91

15.36

16.22

23.07

15.55

17.98

16.66

17.20

24.61

In Speech

6.65

8.84

7.65

6.37

7.76

7.03

8.59

7.75

6.63

7.79

6.88

8.69

7.71

6.52

7.77

In Movement

18.54

16.68

17.69

18.40

13.38

24.61

21.81

23.32

21.99

17.87

22.14

19.74

21.04

20.46

15.92

Mental Retardation

6.43

5.61

6.05

7.27

5.23

6.70

6.74

6.72

7.75

6.28

6.59

6.28

6.45

7.55

5.82

Mental Illness

2.50

2.27

2.39

2.57

1.78

2.38

2.23

2.31

2.66

2.11

2.43

2.25

2.35

2.63

1.97

Any Other

22.88

26.37

24.48

21.94

23.58

20.43

23.71

21.94

19.81

21.96

21.43

24.79

22.97

20.71

22.66

Multiple Disability

8.02

5.60

6.92

8.26

4.80

9.73

6.71

8.35

9.55

5.97

9.04

6.26

7.76

9.00

5.46

 

Rural

In seeing

17.58

14.29

16.10

15.98

16.58

15.55

12.89

14.35

14.65

14.49

16.37

13.45

15.05

15.22

15.40

In Hearing

17.37

19.34

18.25

17.35

25.62

13.61

16.27

14.82

15.18

22.10

15.13

17.50

16.20

16.10

23.62

In Speech

6.62

8.81

7.61

6.17

7.85

7.21

8.87

7.96

6.56

7.81

6.97

8.85

7.82

6.40

7.82

In Movement

19.13

17.00

18.17

20.54

14.23

25.53

22.83

24.30

24.34

19.07

22.95

20.50

21.84

22.73

16.98

Mental Retardation

6.43

5.79

6.14

7.19

5.38

6.52

6.95

6.72

7.51

6.45

6.48

6.49

6.49

7.38

5.99

Mental Illness

2.46

2.15

2.32

2.63

1.77

2.22

2.10

2.17

2.61

2.08

2.32

2.12

2.23

2.62

1.95

Any Other

22.24

26.97

24.36

21.69

23.70

19.97

23.35

21.50

19.56

21.88

20.88

24.80

22.65

20.46

22.67

Multiple Disability

8.16

5.66

7.04

8.45

4.86

9.39

6.74

8.18

9.59

6.12

8.89

6.31

7.72

9.11

5.58

 

Urban

In seeing

16.04

17.46

16.72

18.32

17.80

13.37

14.58

13.95

17.19

16.56

14.48

15.79

15.11

17.68

17.11

In Hearing

19.03

20.15

19.57

21.36

29.95

15.54

18.97

17.19

18.85

26.38

17.00

19.46

18.18

19.93

27.95

In Speech

6.74

8.92

7.79

6.86

7.44

6.41

7.67

7.02

6.81

7.72

6.55

8.20

7.34

6.83

7.60

In Movement

16.53

15.76

16.16

13.22

10.53

21.32

18.56

19.99

16.13

13.76

19.31

17.38

18.38

14.88

12.34

Mental Retardation

6.44

5.06

5.78

7.47

4.70

7.36

6.06

6.73

8.36

5.69

6.97

5.64

6.33

7.98

5.25

Mental Illness

2.63

2.62

2.62

2.44

1.82

2.93

2.67

2.81

2.81

2.22

2.81

2.65

2.73

2.65

2.04

Any Other

25.04

24.61

24.83

22.54

23.15

22.10

24.87

23.43

20.42

22.22

23.33

24.76

24.02

21.33

22.63

Multiple Disability

7.56

5.42

6.53

7.80

4.60

10.98

6.62

8.89

9.44

5.45

9.55

6.12

7.90

8.73

5.08

   Note- BKD/B -Bundelkhand Region, UP/U-Uttar Pradesh, MP/M-Madhya Pradesh,        Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Table 9: Prevalence of Disability in Bundelkhand Region of UP and MP by sex and residence 2011

Region/

Nature of Disability

Bundelkhand

Bundelkhand_MP

Bundelkhand_UP

MADHYA PRADESH

UTTAR PRADESH

F

M

P

F

M

P

F

M

P

F

M

P

F

M

P

Total

Total of disabled (%)

0.33

0.42

0.38

0.19

0.24

0.22

1.54

1.87

1.72

1.89

2.36

2.14

1.88

2.26

2.08

In seeing

19.6

16.3

17.7

19.4

16.2

17.6

19.8

16.3

17.8

19.1

16.2

17.4

19.9

17.3

18.4

In Hearing

18.9

15.9

17.1

17.4

14.5

15.7

20.5

17.3

18.6

18.4

16.3

17.2

26.9

23.1

24.7

In Speech

4.8

5.1

5.0

4.3

4.6

4.5

5.3

5.6

5.4

4.4

4.5

4.5

6.4

6.4

6.4

In Movement

22.0

28.0

25.5

24.1

30.1

27.6

19.7

25.7

23.2

23.0

28.4

26.1

13.2

18.7

16.3

Mental Retardation

3.7

4.7

4.3

4.1

4.7

4.5

3.3

4.6

4.1

4.7

5.2

5.0

3.8

4.8

4.4

Mental Illness

1.9

2.5

2.2

2.1

2.6

2.4

1.7

2.2

2.0

2.4

2.7

2.5

1.5

2.1

1.8

Any Other

20.5

20.2

20.3

19.4

19.0

19.2

21.8

21.5

21.6

19.4

18.7

19.0

23.3

22.4

22.8

Multiple Disability

8.5

7.4

7.9

9.1

8.1

8.5

7.9

6.8

7.2

8.6

7.9

8.2

5.1

5.3

5.2

Total Population

43623273

47338580

90961853

39099752

42180549

81280301

4523521

5158031

9681552

35014503

37612306

72626809

95331831

104480510

199812341

 

Rural

Total of disabled (%)

0.34

0.44

0.40

0.20

0.26

0.23

1.51

1.84

1.69

1.87

2.33

2.10

1.83

2.23

2.04

In seeing

20.1

16.8

18.2

20.2

17.0

18.4

19.9

16.5

17.9

19.2

16.1

17.4

19.9

17.1

18.3

In Hearing

18.9

15.6

17.0

17.6

14.2

15.6

20.5

17.1

18.5

17.3

15.4

16.2

26.1

22.1

23.8

In Speech

4.6

5.1

4.9

4.1

4.6

4.4

5.1

5.5

5.4

4.0

4.3

4.2

6.4

6.4

6.4

In Movement

22.2

28.2

25.7

24.3

30.3

27.8

20.0

25.9

23.4

24.8

30.3

28.0

13.8

19.7

17.2

Mental Retardation

3.5

4.5

4.1

3.8

4.5

4.2

3.2

4.5

4.0

4.4

4.9

4.7

3.8

4.9

4.4

Mental Illness

1.8

2.3

2.1

1.9

2.5

2.2

1.6

2.1

1.9

2.3

2.6

2.5

1.5

2.1

1.8

Any Other

19.9

19.9

19.9

18.5

18.6

18.6

21.4

21.3

21.3

18.6

18.1

18.3

23.3

22.3

22.7

Multiple Disability

9.0

7.7

8.2

9.6

8.3

8.8

8.4

7.0

7.6

9.3

8.3

8.8

5.2

5.5

5.4

Total Population

32077454

34704363

66781817

28585162

30710181

59295343

3492292

3994182

7486474

25408016

27149388

52557404

74324283

80992995

155317278

 

Urban

Total of disabled (%)

0.28

0.36

0.33

0.15

0.20

0.18

1.62

1.98

1.81

1.97

2.46

2.22

2.05

2.39

2.23

In seeing

17.9

14.6

16.0

16.7

13.4

14.8

19.1

15.7

17.2

18.7

16.6

17.5

19.7

17.8

18.7

In Hearing

18.9

16.8

17.7

16.9

15.7

16.2

20.7

17.9

19.1

21.4

18.6

19.8

29.6

26.1

27.7

In Speech

5.3

5.2

5.2

4.9

4.7

4.8

5.7

5.7

5.7

5.2

5.1

5.1

6.5

6.5

6.5

In Movement

21.2

27.4

24.8

23.6

29.5

27.1

19.0

25.3

22.6

18.4

23.6

21.4

11.1

15.4

13.6

Mental Retardation

4.5

5.2

4.9

5.1

5.7

5.5

3.9

4.7

4.4

5.4

6.0

5.8

3.6

4.6

4.2

Mental Illness

2.5

2.9

2.7

3.0

3.3

3.1

2.0

2.6

2.3

2.6

2.9

2.8

1.6

2.2

1.9

Any Other

22.8

21.2

21.9

22.6

20.3

21.3

23.0

22.2

22.5

21.5

20.2

20.8

23.3

22.5

22.8

Multiple Disability

6.8

6.7

6.7

7.2

7.4

7.3

6.5

6.0

6.2

6.8

6.9

6.9

4.5

4.8

4.7

Total Population

11545819

12634217

24180036

10514590

11470368

21984958

1031229

1163849

2195078

9606487

10462918

20069405

21007548

23487515

44495063

Note- P-Population, M-Male, F-Female,                                                                             Source: Registrar General, India (2011)

Literacy Status in Bundelkhand region

Literacy and education is the most important indicator for the human development. Education makes individuals capable to respond their situations. Literacy is a crucial parameter of socio-economic development (President of India). This is the period of globalization and privatization of all the sectors in India and of course in the whole world. Literacy is a term of quality of man whereas education is the term of quality with quantity of degrees. Literacy does not show degree obtained by definition. Literacy means “the person who can read, write, and speak any language (mentioned in Indian constitution” treated as literate in India”.
Literacy is an important means of communication and development. It is one of the major indicators of development in a society. It forms an important input in overall development of individuals enabling them to comprehend their social, economic, political and cultural environment better and respond to it appropriately. Census 1991 has given more meaningful data of literacy of the population seven years and above. According to Indian Census, literate are those who can read, write with understanding in any language. Literacy rate has increased across the country. Literacy rate has increased by 10 percent point during 2001 to 2011(Fig.11). There are 40 per cent literacy has increased in 10 years in bundelkhand region which is higher than state average (UP). It is happy to note that female literacy has changed positively by 104 per cent in Lalitpur district followed by Mahoba (92.7) and Banda (79) whereas this percentage in rural areas is higher i.e., 128.8, 114.1 and 93.5 per cent respectively. Literacy rate is quantitative indicator of development but does not indicate that quality of human resources improved better. We are observing that quality of education has decreased with increasing literacy rate.

Table 10: Percentage change in Literacy in Bundelkhand Region during 2001 to 2011

District/ Area

Total

Rural

Urban

P_LIT

M_LIT

F_LIT

P_LIT

M_LIT

F_LIT

P_LIT

M_LIT

F_LIT

Banda

49.5

36.2

79.0

55.1

39.5

93.5

29.5

22.6

40.6

Chitrakoot

35.1

30.8

43.0

35.9

31.5

44.0

29.8

25.1

37.0

Hamirpur

33.2

22.2

56.5

32.8

20.8

60.4

34.6

28.3

45.0

Jalaun

37.5

28.2

54.8

37.6

27.2

58.5

37.2

31.3

46.2

Jhansi

36.1

26.9

52.6

43.5

29.7

74.4

28.3

23.5

35.3

Lalitpur

66.8

49.9

104.3

75.3

54.4

128.8

38.5

32.0

48.0

Mahoba

59.7

44.5

92.7

68.1

49.2

114.1

38.1

30.7

50.3

Tikamgarh

37.9

29.1

54.6

39.4

30.0

58.5

32.6

25.7

43.2

Chhatarpur

49.4

37.4

72.6

54.8

40.1

87.1

37.4

30.6

47.6

Panna

31.4

25.1

42.1

32.4

25.7

44.3

26.1

21.9

32.2

Sagar

38.1

29.8

52.1

43.3

32.5

63.6

29.3

24.6

35.9

Damoh

36.4

27.3

52.4

38.4

27.8

58.8

30.4

25.5

37.1

Datia

31.6

28.5

36.9

29.4

26.7

34.2

38.7

34.8

44.4

MP

35.6

28.0

48.3

36.2

27.4

52.1

34.6

29.3

42.1

BKD_MP

38.3

30.0

53.1

40.8

31.2

59.6

32.0

26.7

39.6

UP

51.1

39.5

72.1

54.0

40.2

81.8

43.1

37.6

50.9

BKD_UP

42.9

32.3

64.1

47.3

34.3

76.2

32.2

26.5

40.9

BKD_UP_MP

40.7

31.2

58.7

44.2

32.8

67.9

32.1

26.6

40.3

Note-P-Population, M-Male, F-Female, Lit- Literate

Source- Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Work Status in Bundelkhand Region, MP and UP

Census of India reported two categories of population- workers and non-workers. Workers are those who engaged any economic activities in year (Census of India). Workers further classified as Main worker and Marginal worker. They further categorised each into four categories as Agricultural labour, cultivator, household worker and others. In 2011 census, According to duration of work, marginal workers again divided into two sub-categories i.e., 0-3 months and 3-6 months. Marginal workers and non-workers are included students, household duties, dependents, pensioners, rentiers, beggar/vagrants etc. These data are by age, sex and residence.

Changes in activity status indicate employment status of the population. Figures in Table 11 shows clearly that in bundelkhand region main agricultural labour declined 8.1 per cent during 2001 to 2011, in which male and female percentage is 7 and 12.9 percent respectively. In rural areas this percentage is slightly more. In contrast to this urban area shows increment in agriculture main worker by both sexes. Similarly this trend is also appearing among marginal worker (Table 12). It is also found the cultivator main worker has increased more than 100 times in both residences by both sexes, but female are leading in position in cultivation work. Marginal male agriculture labour has increased by 16.1 point whereas female marginal agriculture labour declined by 42.1 per cent in both residences (Rural & urban). Main worker in household duties has declined in both residences in bundelkhand region but this is not found in MP and UP. But, this trend is not found among male marginal workers. Household male marginal workers have increased by 38.2 per cent (Table 12). 

Among marginal worker (all age group) such as students, household duties, dependents, pensioners, rentiers, beggar/vagrants, etc., higher percentage (64.55) was reported in bundelkhand region which is higher than states (MP&UP) average (Table 13). Similar patterns are also seeing in Table 14).

Conclusions

Change in demographic characteristics during 2001 to 2011 is recorded in all the districts of UP and MP in general and particular in bundelkhand region. Bundelkhand region comprises 13 districts from both MP and UP. Urbanisation, sex ratio, literacy rate, work participation rate has increased from 2001 to 2011 in bundelkhand region whereas child sex, agricultural labour and household workers has declined during same periods.  Adolescent and youth population has increased with disabilities. Proportion of rural and male population is higher than urban and female population. Migration rate was recorded highest during 1991 to 2001 in bundelkhand region.

Acknowledge to: ORGI and CSRD faculty and organizer.

References

Agnihotri S.B. 2000. Sex Ratio Patterns in the Indian Population: A Fresh Exploration. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Kumar, Sanjay and Sathyanarayana, KM. 2012. District-Level estimates of Fertility and               Implied Sex Ratio at Birth in India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.         xlvi(33):66-72, 2012.

Narula, Manju. YNS.Education, Gender, Access and Participation to Elementary Education         in Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh. Downloaded from  http://www.dise.in/ _   Downloads/Use%20of%20Dise%20Data/Manju%20Narula.pdf on 25 December, 2014.

Registrar General, India. 2001. Census of India, 2001: Primary Census Abstract. New     Delhi. Office   of Registrar  General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of          Home Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2001. Census of India, 2001: Migration Tables. New      Delhi. Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of          Home Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2011. Census of India, 2011: Primary Census Abstract. New     Delhi.  Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of          Home Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2011. Census of India, 2011: Economic Tables (B1, B11, B13).            New    Delhi. Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry       of Home Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2011. Census of India, 2011: Age Data (C13&C14). New Delhi.           Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of Home                       Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2011. Census of India, 2011: Disabled Population (C20). New Delhi. Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of          Home Affairs.

Registrar General, India. 2014. Vital Statistics of India based on the Civil Registration      System, 2011. New Delhi. Office of         Registrar General and Census Commissioner,            India, Ministry of Home Affairs.

Visaria, P. 1971. The Sex Ratio of the Population of India. Monograph (10), New Delhi:              Office of the Registrar General. 

Table 11: Percentage change in main worker status in Bundelkhand Region during 2001-11

District/

Area

TWP

TWM

TWF

MWP

MWM

MWF

MAP

MAM

MAF

MCP

MCM

MCF

MHP

MHM

MHF

Total

Banda

13.3

20.0

0.6

17.2

15.6

23.5

83.3

81.1

88.9

-10.5

-7.0

-24.8

-14.6

-17.4

-3.8

Chitrakoot

21.7

30.6

8.1

25.9

25.4

27.4

130.7

136.4

120.6

-5.9

-0.7

-19.7

21.3

0.8

86.5

Hamirpur

8.6

11.3

2.8

7.2

1.4

39.5

48.1

39.8

74.2

-19.1

-18.6

-22.4

28.0

5.4

180.4

Jalaun

18.7

21.6

10.4

18.0

13.4

56.6

84.4

80.4

104.3

-7.3

-6.8

-11.6

14.2

-2.6

77.7

Jhansi

26.1

23.4

32.9

19.9

12.8

57.9

155.0

138.2

198.7

-8.7

-9.8

-3.3

7.0

4.8

11.7

Lalitpur

19.2

24.7

10.1

23.5

16.2

59.1

184.3

177.1

197.9

10.4

7.1

26.3

11.1

9.8

13.9

Mahoba

16.6

23.3

4.7

17.0

12.2

37.1

81.1

80.7

81.9

-13.6

-11.6

-22.3

23.0

7.0

100.7

Tikamgarh

15.7

21.0

8.3

18.9

12.7

37.8

229.6

200.8

284.8

-7.9

-7.8

-8.3

-17.8

-22.6

-9.0

Chhatarpur

26.9

23.9

32.7

25.5

15.8

61.4

132.8

116.0

166.4

-1.9

-7.3

17.9

-3.4

-6.5

2.4

Panna

15.6

19.2

9.8

5.9

4.3

10.8

77.8

81.0

72.3

-24.0

-20.5

-36.0

-21.3

-25.4

-12.0

Sagar

19.8

23.7

12.3

22.1

20.2

28.5

87.0

84.5

94.4

-6.8

-5.1

-17.4

-24.3

-38.2

-10.8

Damoh

18.1

21.5

12.5

11.8

9.4

19.1

68.9

61.4

89.2

-13.5

-12.3

-20.9

-46.7

-53.9

-40.1

Datia

1.6

18.4

-23.8

9.2

20.0

-19.8

119.1

143.0

77.2

-10.9

5.2

-50.1

-2.9

-4.7

0.1

MP

22.4

24.4

19.0

18.8

16.4

25.6

70.9

68.2

75.1

-7.8

-5.5

-13.7

-11.4

-11.1

-11.8

BKD_MP

17.8

21.9

10.9

17.6

14.6

26.8

104.3

97.3

120.5

-9.3

-7.7

-14.9

-28.5

-37.4

-19.0

BKD_UP_MP

17.9

21.8

10.8

18.0

14.1

32.9

-8.1

-7.0

-12.9

101.4

94.6

118.4

-19.1

-25.2

-10.7

BKD_UP

18.0

21.7

10.6

18.4

13.5

41.9

98.3

91.8

115.9

-7.0

-6.3

-10.5

9.7

0.2

38.8

UP

21.9

21.6

22.8

13.5

9.0

44.3

63.7

61.5

73.0

-15.7

-15.9

-14.1

15.2

3.6

54.1

 

Rural

Banda

11.4

19.5

-2.2

16.2

15.1

20.3

82.4

80.3

87.7

-11.2

-7.6

-25.4

-24.8

-29.2

-8.1

Chitrakoot

20.9

30.6

7.3

24.9

24.6

25.7

128.5

134.0

118.9

-6.5

-1.5

-20.1

28.3

5.5

93.7

Hamirpur

4.9

8.2

-1.4

3.5

-2.1

32.7

44.6

36.3

70.7

-20.2

-19.6

-23.4

10.1

-12.4

163.4

Jalaun

14.6

18.7

4.6

16.2

11.3

54.0

83.3

78.7

105.3

-9.3

-9.0

-11.6

16.6

-10.5

118.6

Jhansi

20.7

18.1

25.5

17.1

7.4

61.7

147.6

127.5

197.4

-10.2

-11.6

-3.1

6.9

-16.6

69.8

Lalitpur

17.2

23.5

7.8

23.8

15.9

60.0

176.8

168.3

192.8

10.4

7.1

26.6

13.4

3.8

42.9

Mahoba

15.8

23.9

3.2

16.6

11.7

35.0

80.8

78.7

84.9

-13.1

-10.9

-22.6

13.6

-10.4

134.7

Tikamgarh

15.7

20.7

8.9

18.9

11.9

39.8

237.8

205.1

302.1

-8.3

-8.3

-8.2

-18.2

-31.1

13.4

Chhatarpur

25.6

22.0

31.7

24.2

12.8

63.9

141.7

121.2

183.1

-1.6

-7.6

20.3

-15.0

-24.9

6.4

Panna

14.4

18.6

8.1

4.6

3.0

9.2

77.5

79.7

73.7

-24.7

-21.4

-36.3

-27.0

-31.3

-16.8

Sagar

16.7

20.9

9.4

18.5

16.5

24.6

83.5

80.8

91.0

-8.4

-6.5

-19.2

-32.8

-48.2

-17.3

Damoh

15.8

18.9

11.2

8.5

5.7

16.8

67.4

59.5

88.4

-14.8

-13.6

-21.8

-49.1

-58.1

-40.5

Datia

-3.3

14.5

-27.2

4.4

16.6

-25.3

114.3

138.2

73.2

-12.4

3.7

-50.9

-31.3

-34.6

-23.9

MP

18.3

20.8

14.7

13.2

10.6

19.4

69.2

65.9

74.5

-8.8

-6.7

-14.1

-26.5

-31.7

-18.1

BKD_MP

15.7

19.8

9.3

15.0

11.6

25.1

103.1

95.2

121.5

-10.1

-8.7

-15.2

-35.8

-46.6

-23.6

BKD_UP_MP

15.3

19.7

7.9

15.9

11.6

31.0

-8.9

-7.8

-13.1

99.4

91.8

118.4

-25.8

-35.9

-11.2

BKD_UP

14.8

19.6

6.4

16.8

11.7

39.3

95.4

88.1

114.5

-7.7

-7.1

-10.8

6.2

-12.6

73.5

UP

16.3

17.0

14.2

7.3

3.1

34.2

60.5

58.1

70.0

-16.6

-16.8

-14.9

4.9

-10.9

55.4

 

Urban

Banda

28.6

23.0

62.8

23.4

18.7

63.4

106.1

100.2

127.2

15.4

14.2

28.4

25.5

28.1

14.6

Chitrakoot

32.9

30.9

45.1

38.3

33.2

91.6

319.8

310.6

349.5

81.7

77.2

132.9

-16.9

-21.5

12.1

Hamirpur

34.8

28.6

65.5

28.3

20.1

104.4

119.9

112.2

143.4

3.6

3.7

2.5

99.3

76.6

243.6

Jalaun

38.4

32.9

83.1

24.5

20.4

69.6

102.9

105.9

83.2

37.5

41.5

-13.5

9.9

11.3

4.5

Jhansi

37.7

32.0

65.7

24.9

21.5

48.6

216.7

217.1

214.9

15.5

19.8

-5.5

7.0

24.2

-23.9

Lalitpur

37.2

33.0

56.7

21.6

17.5

50.0

494.1

514.9

444.1

6.2

7.2

-3.1

5.7

30.3

-21.2

Mahoba

21.4

21.2

22.1

18.8

14.3

55.8

84.0

100.0

31.2

-23.5

-24.6

-11.4

47.3

53.2

21.9

Tikamgarh

16.3

22.4

2.6

18.8

17.3

24.4

143.7

151.5

131.9

-3.5

-1.4

-9.2

-17.0

-1.7

-33.9

Chhatarpur

33.4

31.2

42.2

30.5

27.6

46.4

57.6

73.3

25.3

-6.4

-2.9

-19.1

25.9

48.7

-5.1

Panna

28.9

24.6

46.1

17.6

14.8

31.6

85.5

112.5

38.3

10.1

14.4

-18.2

10.1

10.4

9.7

Sagar

29.7

31.4

24.8

31.5

29.3

39.2

223.3

215.1

255.0

25.9

24.6

37.5

-10.5

-21.1

-1.0

Damoh

31.6

34.7

23.4

27.3

26.1

31.3

159.5

165.3

140.6

29.6

30.3

23.3

-38.7

-38.7

-38.8

Datia

30.4

35.1

14.0

32.0

33.7

24.0

205.0

223.0

163.8

28.0

39.2

-19.2

42.0

54.6

26.7

MP

40.2

35.5

60.7

38.1

32.8

67.2

109.6

121.2

88.9

23.7

28.6

4.3

16.3

27.6

-0.7

BKD_MP

28.7

30.5

23.5

28.3

26.4

35.6

128.8

142.1

99.5

6.4

10.1

-8.7

-12.9

-15.8

-10.2

BKD_UP_MP

31.7

30.1

37.8

26.5

23.3

43.9

9.6

12.6

-5.9

139.5

146.3

119.8

-5.3

-1.3

-9.9

BKD_UP

34.7

29.8

61.6

24.7

20.4

59.9

149.3

149.5

148.3

13.7

15.4

0.6

16.3

26.6

-8.3

UP

48.9

40.0

116.0

37.1

30.5

103.5

126.8

120.3

184.5

26.5

25.4

37.8

36.8

32.9

51.2

Note- T-Total, W-Worker, P-Population, M-Male, F-Female, A-Agriculture Labour, C-Cultivator, M-Main, H-Household                                                                     Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Table 12: Percentage change in marginal worker in Bundelkhand Region during 2001-2011

District/

Area

MGP

MGM

MGF

MGAP

MGAM

MGAF

MGCP

MGCM

MGCF

MGHP

MGHM

MGHF

Total

Banda

5.6

40.4

-12.9

8.0

34.3

-6.2

-26.8

7.8

-36.4

24.8

38.8

15.1

Chitrakoot

12.1

60.9

-7.6

28.3

65.9

11.1

-22.9

33.6

-34.3

44.0

69.6

30.8

Hamirpur

11.3

59.1

-13.8

8.7

49.5

-12.7

-38.0

23.3

-51.9

157.3

174.8

145.8

Jalaun

20.2

59.5

-7.9

14.5

47.5

-9.2

-23.8

28.8

-42.3

84.9

97.1

77.1

Jhansi

42.3

87.0

16.8

43.6

91.4

20.4

-21.4

49.7

-38.2

71.2

115.4

51.8

Lalitpur

9.8

117.2

-11.7

41.9

156.9

17.4

-29.6

51.9

-39.1

29.7

103.8

9.6

Mahoba

15.9

89.9

-14.0

12.6

79.6

-13.2

-33.4

45.7

-49.1

122.5

127.4

119.1

Tikamgarh

8.4

90.9

-13.0

-40.2

4.1

-47.5

70.0

157.5

43.4

-15.3

63.2

-35.7

Chhatarpur

31.1

92.7

8.4

-28.4

28.3

-38.9

65.4

117.1

44.5

7.1

40.6

-4.8

Panna

38.2

105.1

9.0

-23.8

41.8

-41.6

64.4

120.2

37.9

31.8

107.2

2.3

Sagar

12.4

50.5

-5.5

-21.8

5.0

-32.2

54.9

73.6

42.6

-44.8

-27.5

-48.2

Damoh

34.2

100.8

6.6

-28.4

31.9

-46.6

78.8

129.6

50.8

-27.6

7.3

-33.7

Datia

-17.6

7.7

-27.6

-52.8

-58.0

-51.0

50.1

127.7

21.7

30.6

42.1

26.4

MP

32.6

77.0

11.7

-23.4

11.9

-34.0

58.0

103.0

36.9

3.1

57.0

-14.1

BKD_MP

18.6

75.2

-3.2

-35.2

0.9

-44.0

64.7

112.6

42.1

-30.9

2.6

-37.9

BKD_UP_MP

17.9

70.5

-5.1

-31.1

16.1

-42.1

37.9

81.4

16.8

-8.1

38.2

-20.6

BKD_UP

17.4

67.2

-6.8

20.4

61.7

0.0

-27.4

240.7

-40.4

70.1

99.5

54.6

UP

44.6

87.1

9.4

36.9

75.7

3.7

-5.6

54.7

-33.0

58.6

104.6

33.1

 

Rural

Banda

2.8

39.0

-14.9

6.5

32.4

-7.2

-28.1

5.3

-37.3

21.8

33.5

14.1

Chitrakoot

12.2

65.2

-7.7

27.7

65.1

10.7

-23.4

32.7

-34.7

52.4

84.2

37.2

Hamirpur

7.4

55.8

-16.1

6.9

47.2

-13.9

-38.7

21.4

-52.2

158.6

179.1

145.6

Jalaun

11.5

49.6

-12.4

9.9

40.3

-11.2

-25.3

25.4

-42.7

80.6

82.6

79.5

Jhansi

28.1

79.1

6.6

36.8

78.7

17.6

-23.4

45.4

-39.2

125.3

139.5

118.9

Lalitpur

4.3

102.2

-13.7

38.4

144.9

15.9

-29.9

50.7

-39.3

45.4

112.4

26.3

Mahoba

14.2

96.1

-14.3

11.5

77.6

-13.1

-34.3

41.4

-49.1

211.2

193.4

224.3

Tikamgarh

8.5

95.5

-12.1

-39.9

4.5

-47.2

75.0

167.1

47.4

-4.8

63.9

-24.7

Chhatarpur

29.0

96.4

6.8

-28.9

28.2

-39.2

66.8

121.5

45.3

9.4

32.5

0.9

Panna

35.7

105.4

7.1

-24.4

41.0

-42.0

63.6

121.0

36.8

27.1

103.5

-1.1

Sagar

12.1

48.2

-4.1

-22.7

3.3

-32.6

53.8

71.3

42.3

-44.0

-28.3

-47.0

Damoh

32.3

96.3

6.8

-29.2

30.0

-46.9

78.3

128.8

50.7

-24.8

11.1

-31.0

Datia

-20.4

2.5

-29.0

-53.4

-59.0

-51.4

48.5

122.8

21.2

23.7

38.2

17.9

MP

30.4

78.9

9.9

-23.9

10.9

-34.4

57.9

103.1

36.9

3.9

54.4

-11.8

BKD_MP

17.4

74.7

-3.3

-35.5

0.0

-44.2

65.1

112.9

42.6

-29.3

2.0

-35.8

BKD_UP_MP

13.9

67.3

-7.0

-31.8

14.3

-42.4

36.2

78.3

16.1

-6.4

35.6

-17.3

BKD_UP

11.0

61.6

-10.4

17.3

56.1

-1.4

-28.5

222.2

-40.8

87.6

104.7

78.7

UP

37.1

81.9

3.1

35.1

73.7

2.8

-6.9

52.3

-33.6

60.8

104.3

37.6

 

Urban

Banda

55.6

52.5

61.8

83.8

109.5

61.2

136.5

198.4

101.2

44.5

66.4

22.7

Chitrakoot

9.4

16.5

-3.1

76.4

112.9

48.9

225.6

211.8

234.6

-26.8

-11.4

-41.8

Hamirpur

60.6

83.7

31.0

52.6

95.9

22.3

-16.3

74.2

-41.0

150.8

155.9

147.0

Jalaun

110.6

112.0

106.6

145.0

181.8

83.3

131.0

155.5

69.5

97.9

130.0

68.1

Jhansi

98.3

101.6

92.8

126.4

199.0

64.5

35.4

119.9

-5.6

19.3

91.7

-12.2

Lalitpur

148.8

246.3

67.8

221.9

597.0

100.1

20.8

175.0

-11.7

-10.2

78.3

-31.0

Mahoba

31.3

63.8

-9.2

34.0

105.4

-15.5

9.7

184.7

-45.7

-26.8

2.4

-44.4

Tikamgarh

7.0

66.2

-22.2

-46.7

-3.2

-54.7

13.1

60.5

-3.6

-36.1

61.3

-56.0

Chhatarpur

52.6

72.7

33.5

-13.8

29.6

-26.8

41.9

61.0

31.0

-4.7

90.0

-31.1

Panna

92.4

102.4

78.1

24.8

88.1

-6.2

98.7

97.0

100.3

72.3

129.1

36.8

Sagar

15.1

64.1

-17.8

22.2

61.0

-4.9

134.2

205.7

71.7

-48.6

-23.8

-53.5

Damoh

59.5

145.8

4.8

40.8

127.7

-13.2

112.0

169.7

57.7

-47.7

-16.8

-53.9

Datia

19.8

53.3

-4.6

-13.4

13.3

-22.6

110.7

328.8

39.9

43.8

50.9

41.5

MP

56.2

66.1

43.4

8.2

61.2

-12.3

60.8

100.3

37.6

0.1

65.6

-23.0

BKD_MP

31.2

78.9

-2.3

-24.8

29.5

-39.8

54.4

104.8

27.4

-39.0

5.2

-48.4

BKD_UP_MP

59.9

88.9

26.8

-0.5

79.8

-27.5

84.2

146.3

39.2

-15.0

47.5

-34.1

BKD_UP

83.0

94.2

63.9

103.1

166.3

48.4

42.4

1119.5

-2.7

30.2

87.8

-0.2

UP

128.1

122.5

141.2

106.6

134.0

56.2

115.6

224.4

35.1

49.6

105.5

14.2

Note-MG- Marginal worker, P-Population, M-Male, F-Female, A-Agriculture Labour, C-Cultivator, M-Main,              H-Household 
Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Table 13: Percentage distribution of marginal worker (all ages) in Bundelkhand Region of MP and UP by residence and sex 2011

Region/

Marginal Worker

Rural

Urban

Total

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

Females

Marginal workers

58.55

60.51

56.78

59.25

42.75

37.09

43.72

33.25

40.08

31.84

56.03

58.94

53.54

57.34

41.33

Students

3.78

3.74

3.81

4.56

8.25

8.13

4.77

10.69

7.98

18.60

4.12

3.81

4.40

4.80

9.29

Household duties

65.51

60.32

70.50

54.98

62.68

53.14

55.71

51.19

47.18

45.79

64.55

60.00

68.85

54.44

60.98

Dependents

1.26

1.07

1.44

1.51

3.00

2.48

1.53

3.20

2.35

5.67

1.35

1.10

1.59

1.57

3.27

Pensioners

0.45

0.41

0.49

0.53

0.65

0.90

0.84

0.95

0.81

0.88

0.49

0.44

0.53

0.55

0.68

Rentiers

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.07

0.03

0.10

0.09

0.17

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.04

Beggars,Vagrants etc.

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.06

0.10

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

Others

28.98

34.44

23.73

38.38

25.37

35.25

37.10

33.85

41.52

28.80

29.46

34.63

24.60

38.60

25.71

 

Males

Marginal workers

41.45

39.49

43.22

40.75

57.25

62.91

56.28

66.75

59.92

68.16

43.97

41.06

46.46

42.66

58.67

Students

8.43

8.54

8.35

9.31

10.23

8.81

7.06

9.66

9.14

14.46

8.50

8.35

8.61

9.29

10.87

Household duties

13.09

12.22

13.80

12.16

12.41

4.66

5.03

4.48

3.23

3.98

11.67

11.30

11.95

10.90

11.13

Dependents

2.15

1.96

2.31

2.10

2.84

2.33

1.91

2.53

2.54

4.02

2.18

1.95

2.36

2.16

3.02

Pensioners

0.68

0.53

0.80

0.68

0.81

0.82

0.68

0.89

0.95

1.14

0.70

0.55

0.82

0.71

0.86

Rentiers

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.11

0.16

0.08

0.19

0.16

0.25

0.07

0.06

0.08

0.06

0.13

Beggars, Vagrants etc.

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.03

0.08

0.09

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.05

0.05

Others

75.57

76.66

74.66

75.67

73.55

83.20

85.23

82.22

83.91

76.06

76.85

77.76

76.16

76.82

73.93

 

Persons

Students

5.71

5.63

5.77

6.49

9.38

8.56

6.06

10.00

8.68

15.78

6.04

5.67

6.36

6.71

10.22

Household duties

43.78

41.32

46.00

37.53

33.90

22.64

27.19

20.01

20.84

17.29

41.30

40.01

42.41

35.87

31.73

Dependents

1.63

1.42

1.82

1.75

2.91

2.38

1.74

2.75

2.46

4.55

1.72

1.45

1.95

1.82

3.12

Pensioners

0.55

0.46

0.63

0.59

0.75

0.85

0.75

0.91

0.89

1.05

0.58

0.48

0.67

0.62

0.79

Rentiers

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.08

0.12

0.06

0.16

0.13

0.22

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.04

0.10

Beggars, Vagrants etc.

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.07

0.09

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.04

Others

48.29

51.12

45.74

53.57

52.95

65.42

64.19

66.13

66.92

61.01

50.30

52.34

48.56

54.91

54.01

   Note- BKD-Bundelkhand Region, UP/U-Uttar Pradesh, MP/M-Madhya Pradesh,        Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Table 14: Percentage distribution of marginal worker (15 to 59 yrs ages) in Bundelkhand Region of MP and UP by residence and sex 2011

Region/

Marginal Worker

Rural

Urban

Total

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

BKD

BKD_M

BKD_U

MP

UP

Females

Marginal workers

58.97

60.94

57.18

59.79

42.70

36.53

43.35

32.47

39.61

30.72

56.33

59.28

53.76

57.75

41.14

Students

2.33

2.26

2.40

2.61

5.18

5.78

3.43

7.64

5.53

13.20

2.59

2.34

2.84

2.82

5.95

Household duties

66.14

60.69

71.46

55.43

65.16

54.79

56.34

53.55

48.57

50.08

65.27

60.39

69.97

54.95

63.70

Dependents

0.61

0.50

0.72

0.71

1.70

1.43

0.89

1.86

1.41

3.55

0.67

0.52

0.81

0.76

1.88

Pensioners

0.22

0.17

0.27

0.23

0.41

0.49

0.35

0.60

0.44

0.64

0.24

0.18

0.30

0.24

0.43

Rentiers

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.06

0.03

0.09

0.07

0.15

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.04

Beggars,Vagrants etc.

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.04

0.07

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.02

Others

30.69

36.38

25.14

40.99

27.51

37.44

38.95

36.24

43.94

32.32

31.20

36.55

26.06

41.20

27.97

 

Male

Marginal workers

41.03

39.06

42.82

40.21

57.30

63.47

56.65

67.53

60.39

69.28

43.67

40.72

46.24

42.25

58.86

Students

6.56

6.58

6.54

6.81

7.87

7.18

5.92

7.81

7.40

11.43

6.66

6.49

6.80

6.89

8.41

Household duties

12.01

11.10

12.78

10.83

11.58

4.22

4.53

4.07

2.84

3.62

10.68

10.23

11.02

9.67

10.36

Dependents

0.99

0.90

1.07

0.94

1.51

1.33

1.12

1.43

1.48

2.30

1.05

0.92

1.14

1.02

1.63

Pensioners

0.21

0.14

0.27

0.18

0.34

0.29

0.21

0.33

0.31

0.50

0.23

0.15

0.28

0.20

0.36

Rentiers

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.11

0.15

0.07

0.19

0.14

0.23

0.06

0.04

0.07

0.05

0.13

Beggars, Vagrants etc.

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.06

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.04

Others

80.16

81.23

79.27

81.17

78.55

86.82

88.15

86.15

87.78

81.85

81.30

82.14

80.66

82.13

79.06

 

Person

Students

4.06

3.94

4.18

4.30

6.72

6.67

4.84

7.76

6.66

11.98

4.37

4.03

4.67

4.54

7.40

Household duties

43.93

41.32

46.33

37.50

34.46

22.70

26.99

20.14

20.95

17.89

41.43

39.96

42.71

35.82

32.31

Dependents

0.76

0.65

0.87

0.81

1.59

1.37

1.02

1.57

1.45

2.68

0.84

0.69

0.96

0.87

1.73

Pensioners

0.22

0.16

0.27

0.21

0.37

0.36

0.27

0.42

0.36

0.54

0.23

0.17

0.29

0.23

0.39

Rentiers

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.08

0.12

0.05

0.16

0.11

0.21

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.09

Beggars, Vagrants etc.

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.07

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

Others

50.98

53.89

48.32

57.15

56.76

68.78

66.83

69.95

70.41

66.63

53.08

55.12

51.31

58.49

58.04

   Note- BKD-Bundelkhand Region, UP/U-Uttar Pradesh, MP/M-Madhya Pradesh,        Sources: Registrar General, India 2001 and 2011

Click Here to Download Full Research

By: Sarda Prasad and Arvind Shukla
Post Doctoral Fellow and Ph.D scholar
CSRD/SSS/ JNU, New Delhi-67

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