Pencil drawing by Frederick Charles Maisey of details of sculpture from
Kalinjar, with notes, dated 1845 -1852.Kalinjar, one of the oldest hill forts in
India, occupies a remote site on the last spur of the Vindhya Mountains above
the Gangetic Valley, a plateau 375 metres high.
The site was originally a revered hill shrine later fortified and occupied by
successive generations of invaders. From the 9th to the 12th centuries it was a
stronghold of the Chandellas. In 1023 Mahmud of Ghazni attempted to seize the
fortress but failed. In 1203 Kalinjar fell to the Muslims under Qutub-ud-Din
Aybak who defeated the last of the Chandella rajas, Parmadideva. The fort was
sacked and all the temples were destroyed. A few centuries later, with the rise
of the Mughal Empire, a new series of attacks took.